Bilva (Aegle marmelos)

Botanical name: Aegle marmelos Corr.

Family: Rutaceae
Habit: Small to moderate sized tree
Part Used: Fruit, leaves, root, bark



Vernacular Names: :

  • English: Golden apple, bel-tree
  • Sanskrit: Bilva, sriphala, vilva, sandilya
  • Hindi: Bael
  • Kannada: Baelada mara
  • Malayalam: Koovalam, Mavilavu, Vilvam
  • Tamil: Vilwam
  • Telugu: Bilvamu, Bilvachettu
  • Trade Name: Bel mool (for root), Belgiri, Koovalakkayu (for fruit), Bail guda, Belgiri, Bilpathra majja(for fruit pulp)





Properties:

  • Taste (Rasa): Kasaya(astringent),katu(pungent),tikta (bitter)
  • Property (Guna): Laghu (light)
  • Potency (Veerya): Usna (hot)
  • Post digestive effect (Vipaka): katu (pungent)
  • Dosha-Karma (Action on Doshas): Vata Kapha Hara (pacifies vata & kapha dosha)
  • Actions (Karma): pitta saraka( cholagogue), jvaraghna (anti-pyretic), grahi(), krimighna (anthelminthic), vrana ropana(wound-healing)
  • Significant rejuvenative actions (Rasayana Karmas): rasayana(rejuvenative) yakrtuduttejaka(liver function stimulant), hrdya (cardiotonic)
  • Indications (Rogaharatva): chardi(vomitting), atisara(diarrhoea), grahani(sprue syndrome), kasa(cough), baala roga(paediatric diseases), jvara(fever), kamala(jaundice), udara roga(ascites), sotha(oedema), arshas(hemorrhoids), medo roga (obesity), garbhasayaa sotha (uterine inflammation), karna badirya (deafness), netra roga (eye-disease)



Chemical Composition:
FRUIT - coumarins Marmesin, Imperatorin, Xanthotoxol, Scoparone, scopoletin, Umbelliferone, Skimmin, Psoralen and Marmelide, Alkaloids- Aegelenine, Marmeline, Dictamine, O-methylhalfordinol, O-isopentenylhalfordinol, Pectin, alpha and B-amyrin, B-sitosterol, polysaccharides.

LEAVES - aegelenine(alkaloid-sterol - 0.2 % from leaves in june to August and negligible in December to February), Lupeol, Rutin, Marmesinin

HEART WOOD - Dictamine a ferroquinone alkalod, coumarin - marmasin , Aurapten Aegelinol, alkaloid Fagarine, halfordinol, Halopine, coumarin Imperatorin, Marmelide, Scoparol, Scopoletin, Acetic acid.

ROOTS - Marmin, marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine

BARK contain Marmin


Promotive and Curative Recipes:

  1. BILVA KASAYA: (Sushruta Samhita, cikitsa stahna,26)
    The root of bilva tree should be collected, pounded and cooked in water for preparing decoction.
    In early morning, this decoction (kvatha) should be consumed along with milk as anupana. This recipe should be followed for one month. This recipe promotes life-span of a person.
  2. BILVA PEYA : (Charaka Samhita, Cikitsa sthana, 3/235)
    Gruel should be prepared with tender bilva fruits. Consuming this gruel provides relief from conditions like jvara (fever) and parikarthika (anal fissure). It should be consumed in a dose of 200 ml twice a day after food.
  3. BILVA PHALA: (Charaka Samhita, Cikitsa sthana, 19/113):
    Take pulp of tender fruits of bilva(10-20 gm), grind it evenly and mix it with honey or butter-milk. This recipe helps in stopping diarrhoea.



Important Formulations of Bilva:

  1. Bilva Amra Kvatha
  2. Dasamula Arista
  3. Dasamula Katutrayam Kasaya
  4. Badava mukha Curna
  5. Kutajastaka Avaleha



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