Jiraka (Cuminum cyminum)

Botanical name: Cuminum cyminum L.

Family: Apiaceae
Habit: An erect aromatic herb.
Part Used: Fruit, seed



Vernacular Names: :

  • English: Cumin
  • Sanskrit: Jirakam, Ajaji ( जीरकं ; अजाजि)
  • Hindi: Safed Jeera(सफेढ जीरा)
  • Kannada: Jeerige(ಜೀರಿಗೆ)
  • Malayalam: Jeerakam(ജീരകം)
  • Tamil: Cheerakam(சீரகம்)
  • Telugu: Jilakara(జీలకర)
  • Trade Name:
    Seeds: jeera (white) jeera khar, seeragum
    Fruits: jeerige bili, jeerige kari, shahazeera





Properties:

  • Taste (Rasa): katu(pungent)
  • Property (Guna): laghu(light), ruksa(dry), tiksna(penetrating)
  • Potency (Veerya): usna (hot)
  • Post digestive effect (Vipaka): katu(pungent)
  • Dosha-Karma (Action on Doshas): tridosha hara(pacifies all three doshas)
  • Actions (Karma): rucya(promotes taste perception), dipana (enhances appetite), pacana(enhances digestion), garbhasaya sudhikara(improves uterine health), jvaraghna(anti-pyretic), udgara shodhana(enhances proper eructation)
  • Significant rejuvenative actions (Rasayana Karmas): medhya(memory enhancing), caksusya(beneficial for eyes), vrsya(aphrodisiac), balya(promotes strength)
  • Indications (Rogaharatva): arochaka(anorexia), Gulma(abdominal diseases), adhmana(abdominal distension), atisara(diarrhoea), grahani(sprue syndrome), krmi(helmnithiasis), gulma(abdominal tumor), chardi(vomitting), jvara(fever), grahani(sprue syndrome), sotha(oedema), sutika roga (puerperal disroders)



Chemical Composition:
Fruits :
Cuminin, Essential oil, Flavones; Apigenin, Apigetrin, Apiin, Ascorbic acid, Essential oil (Camphene, Caryophyllene, Cymene; Farnesene; Limonene, Linalool, Myrcene, Phellandrene, Pinene, Terpinene, Terpineol, Thymol).

Seed:
Choline; Cosmosiin, Cynaroside; Luteolin.

Leaf & Stem:
Cumin alcohol


Promotive and Curative Recipes:

  1. JIRAKA GUTIKA (SAR, Mk, 7/24)
    Put 10 gm of cumin seeds into a mortar (khalva) and grind until the seeds are finely powdered. Add jaggery in quantity of 20 gm. Pound and mix evenly. Sprinkle some water & make bolus weighing 10 gm each. This formulation should be taken 2-3 times a day, after food. This recipe cures dysuria (mutrakrcchra).
  2. JIRAKA KALKA (CD, 65/23)
    Prepare fine powder of cumin seeds. In a vessel add 10 gm of this cumin powder, 5 gm of warm ghee and 4 gm of saindhava salt. Mix evenly and apply as warm poultice(upanaha) sufficient quantity over affected area in conditions like pain caused due to scorpion sting (vrscika damsa vedana )
  3. JIRAKA CURNA (BP, Mk, 1/213)
    Take Jiraka seeds & saindhava salt. Crush them to make fine powder and sieve through a fine cloth. Mix 2 gm of this powder with warm water. Sufficient quantity of this solution should be sipped & kept in mouth without swallowing or any movement for a duration of 2-3 minutes. This procedure should be repeated for 2-3 times a day before food. This formulation cures diseases like fever (jvara),anorexia( arocaka), oropharyngeal diseases( asya vairasya), excessive salivation (praseka hara).



Important Formulations of Jiraka:

  1. Jiraka arista
  2. Jirakadya ghrta
  3. Jirakadya modaka
  4. Pancha jeeraka guda
  5. Dasamula jeerakadi kashaya



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